You receive this error in your event log. It seems like updates can be installed, but e.g. sfc /scannow doesn’t work, and maybe also the Windows Server Roles or Features overview.
Exception code (event log): 0xc000000
Replacing ntdll.dll or TrustedInstaller.exe from a working system doesn’t help.
Go into Windows recovery mode, e.g. via your Windows boot CD, and open the command prompt.
Rename or delete the file c:windowswinsxspending.xml.
Try sfc /scannow with the /offbootdir and /offwindir parameters according to your HDD letter.
Deleting the file pending.xml also works in normal Windows mode in most cases. In Explorer, right-click the file, choose Properties and set yourself as the owner of file file, with full access. Then delete the file and reboot.